Sunday, April 13, 2014

Silicone Ingredient Solubility List

Silicone Solubility List

I compiled these lists based on information from ingredient manufacturers. If you want to know more about what it means to be a water-soluble silicone vs. water-insoluble silicone, more information follows the lists. 
©Science-y Hair Blog 2014
Water-soluble silicones (The raw ingredients dissolve in water and rinse off with plain water. Shampoo may or may not be necessary to remove products containing these ingredients).

Dimethicone copolyol
DEA PG-Propyl PEG/PPG-18/21 Dimethicone
Dimethicone PEG-8 Phosphate
Dimethicone-PG Diethylmonium Chloride
Hydrolyzed Silk PG-Propyl Methylsilanediol Crosspolymer
Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein Hydroxypropyl Polysiloxane
Hydrolyzed Wheat protein/hydroxypropyl polysiloxane and cystine/silicone co-polymers
Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein PG-Propyl Silanetriol
Lauryl Methicone Copolyol – I would call this one “iffy.”
PEG-40/PPG-8 Methylaminopropyl/Hydropropyl Dimethicone Copolymer
PEG/PPG-20/15 Dimethicone
PEG-12 Dimethicone
PEG/PPG-20/15 Dimethicone
PEG-7 Amodimethicone
PEG-8 Disteramonium Chloride PG-Dimethicone
PEG-33 (and) PEG-8 Dimethicone (and) PEG-14
Silicone Quaternium-8
Silicone Quaternium-17
Note: If the silicone ingredient has a "PEG" or "PPG" or both in front of the silicone, it is probably water-soluble. Watch out for commas. PEG-8 Dimethicone is a water-soluble silicone. PEG-8, Dimethicone indicates either 1) a typo or 2) 2 individual ingredients, separated by a comma. 
©Science-y Hair Blog 2014
Water-insoluble silicones – if they are “water dispersible” I’m calling them “insoluble” because our interest is in rinsing them out, not formulating with them. Any combination of these is still insoluble. If they are in a shampoo, they can still deposit on your hair.
"Sulfate" shampoos and most "sulfate-free" shampoos will remove water-insoluble silicone ingredients.

Amodimethicone - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
Behenoxy Dimethicone Cetearyl methicone
Bis-Amino PEG/PPG-41/3 Aminoethyl PG-Propyl Dimethicone - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
Bis-Aminopropyl Dimethicone  - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
Bis-Phenylpropyl Dimethicone
Bis-Hydroxy/Methoxy Amodimethicone
Cetyl Dimethicone
Cetyl PEG/PPG-15/15 Butyl Ether Dimethicone
Cyclopentasiloxane and C30-45 Alkyl Cetearyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer Cyclohexasiloxane
Dimethicone/Vinyldimethicone Crosspolymer
Di-Isostearoyl Trimethylolpropane Siloxy Silicate
Diphenyl Dimethicone
PCA Dimethicone
Phenyl Trimethicone
Polysilicone-18 Cetyl Phosphate
Silicone Resin Spheres
Simethicone Stearoxy (or Stearyl) Dimethicone
Trimethyl Silylamodimethicone  - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
©Science-y Hair Blog 2014
Silicones which evaporate: (They are not water soluble, but they're a special case. These ingredients are added to help other ingredients spread evenly and then evaporate - any remaining residue will be removed with shampoo).
©Science-y Hair Blog 2014

Why do cosmetics manufacturers use silicones?  Silicones are emollients and add shine and excellent slip/lubrication (comb-ability, reduced friction and breakage). Their weight and ability to help seal moisture both in the hair shaft and out prevent frizzing in high humidity. Unlike oils, they are not likely to go rancid (oxidize) which means longer shelf life. Silicones are not bad for hair in and of themselves. Silicone ingredients can weigh some hair down. Their lubricating ability can render some wavy and curly hair flat or limp. If you use shampoo, conditioner and leave-in products containing silicone - that can become difficult to remove. Using heavy-handed applications of silicone anti-frizz serum can make your hair a little more water-repellant and slick than nature intended. 

Whereas it takes a lot of other ingredients that provide slip like cationic conditioners (maybe 4-10%) to get the job done, one needs only 1-2% silicones to provide the same benefits. Besides that, water-insoluble silicones have been demonstrated to be washed out by ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate and/or cocamidopropyl betaine shampoos (removing approximately 90% silicone residue). Cationic conditioners by definition accumulate on (bond to) hair and resist rinsing or shampooing hair and this can cause a dull look or matted feeling residue if they are overused. I’m not making that up, it’s actually something that cosmetics formulators try to manage in at least some of their formulations so their products don’t weigh your hair down or leave it feeling coated and matted.

How do water-soluble silicones come into being? Water is polar – it has a positive and negative side to the molecule. Oils (like silicones) are nonpolar. In your first week of high school chemistry you probably learned that “like dissolves like.” Polar water dissolves polar “other things” and non-polar oils dissolve other non-polar things. You know this from oil-based salad dressing too. But if we use some cosmetic chemistry voodoo and attach (via esterfication) a polar substance like polyethylene glycol or a protein to a nonpolar silicone – voila, a useful cosmetic ingredient that now has the ability to be carried away by water more easily because one part of it truly is now water-soluble.

What does the “PEG” and the number mean? It’s important! Let’s say you have PEG-12 Dimethicone. That means that 12 molecules of polyethylene glycol were reacted with 1 molecule of dimethicone. The higher the number, the more soluble the oil (and silicone is essentially an oil). That’s because there are more of the water-soluble ingredients -the “PEG,” relative to the water insoluble dimethicone. For example, PEG-8 Dimethicone is slightly less water-soluble than PEG-12 dimethicone, which is slightly less water-soluble than PEG/PPG 15/20 dimethicone.

Are the "water-soluble" silicones really water-soluble? Yes. But do they rinse off your hair when embedded in a hair product? Try it and see. These silicones don't exist alone - they are accompanied by other ingredients in hair products. Some ingredients in a product are going to stick to your hair no matter what. It may not be the water-soluble silicone that is to blame, but all the ingredients in a formula together. Here is a handy trick to find out what rinses off easily. Smear some of the product on a smooth, clear glass. Let it dry completely. Then try to rinse it off with water or water and a little gentle rubbing with your finger. Does it rinse off completely and leave no greasy smear? Hair can bond with products more so than can glass, so this is not 100% reliable - just a quick-and-dirty test.

 ©Science-y Hair Blog 2014

Saturday, April 5, 2014

Not-Thick Hairstyle: A Horizontal Twist

Day Eight: Quick Twist

I found this clever bun-alternative which is perfect for 1) not-thick hair and 2) not-long hair.
Click the picture to find the photo-tutorial.

Friday, April 4, 2014

Not-Thick Hairstyle: Gibson Tuck

Day seven: The Gibson Tuck

I love, love, love this hairstyle! It is practically perfect for not-thick hair. You can comb everything smooth for a polished look. If you have waves and curls, you can pull everything back loosely so you don't destroy the motion of your curls. If the front of your hair is shorter, you can twist the sections back (see second link).

This tutorial has a video and suggests using a roller for a fatter roll, but doesn't show that in the video. I have used a small scrunchie for a fatter roll, but you cannot pin into it. Photo from this tutorial:

This tutorial shows how to accommodate twists in front into the style. Photo from tutorial below. If your hair is shorter and the twists won't fit into the ponytail holder when you slide it down - secure the twists at the back of your head where the roll will end up with bobby pins or a ponytail holder, then do the tuck and pin it over where you secured the twists. This version looks a little less abrupt than the first, if doing the Gibson tuck seems to look too abrupt to you.

Thursday, April 3, 2014

Not-Thick Hairstyle: Single-Comb Twist

Day Six: Single Comb Twist

This is a French twist. Big deal, right? Ah, but this uses a wonderful tool, the Good Hair Days (brand) "Grip-Tuth" hair comb. These are the only hair ("side") combs that stay in my hair and don't peek out. The teeth are not super thick or super long and they do what the name says - grip! No messing with a handful of bobby pins - just one comb and you're done! It's somewhere between a "messy" style and a tidy style.

Scunci "Effortless Beauty" hair combs are runners-up, but sometimes difficult to cover with not-thick hair because the teeth are long and the combs are bulky.

With some curls on the end, the fluffy bits on top fluff out more and curl over the twist and become more charming as the day wears on.

This is my hair before I began - just barely shoulder length. I had slept on hair styled with homemade flaxseed gel and combed it lightly.

Pull hair into a ponytail at the middle-back of your head and twist it 1-2 times. I'm still gripping the end of the ponytail in my hand.
Blue arrows indicate direction of the twist.
Spread the ends of the ponytail out to widen the rolled-up hair. Blue arrows show what I meant by that.
Have a hair comb ready that is wide enough to hold your hair. This is the one I used.
Insert the comb, teeth down towards the floor, into the spread-out ends of the twist, anchored under the rolled-up hair also.
Fluff the ends with your fingers. Within a couple hours, the ends of my hair settled into many curls over the twist.
Add some bobby pins on this side of the twist (the side you twisted the hair towards) if you need to secure the hair further.

Wednesday, April 2, 2014

Not-Thick Hairstyle: Sock Bun - Modified

Day Five: A modified sock bun

Aren't sock buns great? Big, fat, cushy-looking chignons made with socks or bun-making forms.

Oh wait, I haven't enough hair to cover those bun formers. Not in length or density. Nor a sock for that matter. I suppose I could get a veneer of hair to cover it and secure it within an inch of its life with hairpins and then worry that the sock was peeking out. Nah. Forget that.

I found this tutorial about making sock buns for short, thin or layered hair. There are 2 different methods shown and both are quite clever.

My (additional) not-thick hair tips:
  • Use a small ponytail holder to make the initial ponytail so you don't have to wrap it around too many times.
  • If a sock is too big to cover, use a fabric ponytail holder instead. Or a cut-off piece of knee-high nylons. 
  • The bun can be at the nape of your neck instead of near the crown.

Tuesday, April 1, 2014

Not-Thick Hairstyle: Double Pin Curl Swirls

Day Four: Double Pin Curl Swirls

One thing I see in hair tutorials and in the media are hairstyles with multiple buns or swirls or twists. When I try them in my hair, I'm always disappointed. You need a lot of hair to make 3 or 4 or 5 fancy little twists. This is for those of us who don't have a ton of hair or especially long hair.

I did this in hair that had been rag-curled and already made into another style. The rag curls may have worked against me (too large) but as a rule, curls or curled hair mold into an upstyle better than not-curly hair. Curls fill out more space and hang on to a shape better. My hair is just a bit short for this and thus there are lots of loose hairs that you won't have if your hair is just a bit longer than shoulder length.
Section your hair just above the ears. Gather the top section at the back of your head, just below the crown.

Begin to roll the top under. I'm using a curler to shape the pin curls. You could use a mascara tube - which might be easier to grip because it's longer. I'm pulling the hair slightly up. But when I make the actual curl, it will be below the parting so there will not be scalp showing.

Roll down to your scalp (I'm almost there).

Now tilt the right side of the roller up and away from your scalp. This creates a flat curl.
Pin the curl in place. Secure the curl near the scalp first, then add pins around the curl as needed.
I rolled the bottom hair up instead of under.

Then tilt the left side of the roller away from the scalp.

Pin in place and you're all done. 

Monday, March 31, 2014

Not-Thick Hair Hairstyle: French Roll

Day Three: The French Roll

This is a great hairstyle for not-thick hair. It looks polished and neat in not-thick hair, never bulky. Unlike a French Twist, the width and bulk for the roll is evenly distributed and tucking the ends away is part of the style so you're not left wondering where to put the end of your hair. Not a "messy" style. You don't need to comb your hair or flatten any curls for this. I had slept on my un-styled, wavy hair and had also re-done the twist a few times in the process of taking photos which pulled out most of the wave. This would look great with curly hair.

Pull hair to the position you want the roll - usually in the middle-back of your head. Wrap the hair around 1-2 fingers, the roll it towards your head.

The blue arrows show the direction of the roll - over the fingers and towards the head.

From the back you can see the roll taking shape. Don't roll too tightly or you'll lose the bulk of the roll and it will be difficult to get the bobby pins in.

With the roll in place, use your other hand to pin into the top and bottom of the roll - pinning the hair next to the scalp first to secure the roll (top and bottom arrows) and then pinning along the "seam" of the roll where it curves under to secure the hair on the outside of the roll. You can pin the top of the roll closed if it looks too open for your tastes.