Sunday, April 13, 2014

Silicone Ingredient Solubility List

Silicone Solubility List
Updated November 26, 2015
I compiled these lists based on information from ingredient manufacturers. If you want to know more about what it means to be a water-soluble silicone vs. water-insoluble silicone, more information follows the lists. "Water soluble" does NOT mean an ingredient will rinse off with water, so I'm trying to indicate when an ingredient is not water-rinsable.
©Science-y Hair Blog 2014
Water-soluble silicones (The raw ingredients dissolve in water and rinse off with plain water. Shampoo may or may not be necessary to remove products containing these ingredients).

Bis-peg/ppg-16/16 peg/ppg-16/16 (This is an emulsifier - not for shine or lubrication)
Dimethicone copolyol
DEA PG-Propyl PEG/PPG-18/21 Dimethicone
Dimethicone PEG-8 Phosphate
Dimethicone-PG Diethylmonium Chloride
Hydrolyzed Silk PG-Propyl Methylsilanediol Crosspolymer
Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein Hydroxypropyl Polysiloxane
Hydrolyzed Wheat protein/hydroxypropyl polysiloxane and cystine/silicone co-polymers
Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein PG-Silanetriol
Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein PG-Propyl Silanetriol
PEG-40/PPG-8 Methylaminopropyl/Hydropropyl Dimethicone Copolymer
PEG/PPG-14/4 Dimethicone
PEG/PPG-20/15 Dimethicone
PEG-12 Dimethicone
PEG/PPG-20/15 Dimethicone
PPG-8 Methylaminopropyl, Hydroxypropyl Dimethicone Copolymer
PEG-7 Amodimethicone
PEG-8 Disteramonium Chloride PG-Dimethicone
PEG-33 (and) PEG-8 Dimethicone (and) PEG-14
Silicone Quaternium-8

Note: If the silicone ingredient has a "PEG" or "PPG" or both in front of the silicone, it is probably water-soluble. Watch out for commas. PEG-8 Dimethicone is a water-soluble silicone. PEG-8, Dimethicone indicates either 1) a typo or 2) 2 individual ingredients, separated by a comma.

Water soluble, not necessarily water-rinsable
Silicone Quaternium-17 - This ingredient is a conditioner - a silicone that has been modified to bind to hair like conditioners do. The ingredient itself is water-soluble, but it may not rinse off with water. This ingredient is meant to bind to hair (specifically to damaged areas), it may build up or accumulate to weigh down especially build-up prone hair or lightweight hair types or it may contribute to over-softening. But in shampoos, it can offer much-needed lubrication. 
Lauryl Methicone Copolyol
Silsesquioxane - Yes, it is water-soluble, but that's for the chemists. It likely bonds to hair temporarily and may not rinse off your hair with water. Should be removed with most shampoos.

©Science-y Hair Blog 2014
Water-insoluble silicones – if they are “water dispersible” I’m calling them “insoluble” because our interest is in rinsing them out, not formulating with them. Any combination of these is still insoluble. If they are in a shampoo, they can still deposit on your hair.
"Sulfate" shampoos and most "sulfate-free" shampoos will remove water-insoluble silicone ingredients.

Amodimethicone - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
Aminopropyl triethoxysilane
Behenoxy Dimethicone Cetearyl methicone
Bis-Amino PEG/PPG-41/3 Aminoethyl PG-Propyl Dimethicone - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself. Only experience will tell how it works in your hair.
Bis-Aminopropyl Dimethicone  - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself. Only experience will tell how it works in your hair.
Bis-Cetearyl Amodimethicone
Bis-isobutyl Peg/Ppg-20/35/Amodimethicone Copolymer 
Bis-Phenylpropyl Dimethicone
Bis-Hydroxy/Methoxy Amodimethicone
Cetyl Dimethicone
Cetyl PEG/PPG-15/15 Butyl Ether Dimethicone
Cyclopentasiloxane and C30-45 Alkyl Cetearyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer Cyclohexasiloxane
Dimethicone/Vinyldimethicone Crosspolymer
Divynildimethicone/Dimethicone Copolymer
Dimethicone Propyl PG-Betaine - Another special case. This is an amphoteric silicone-surfactant combination ingredient. It actively bonds to the hair for conditioning and to prevent dye fading and is water-dispersible. Most likely needs a silicone-free shampoo if the hair becomes too soft or too heavy with this ingredient.
Dimethiconol meadowfoamate
Di-Isostearoyl Trimethylolpropane Siloxy Silicate
Diphenyl Dimethicone
PCA Dimethicone
Phenyl Trimethicone
Polysilicone-18 Cetyl Phosphate
Silicone Quaternium-16 - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
Silicone Quaternium-18 - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
Silicone Quaternium-22 -  special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
Silicone Resin Spheres
Simethicone Stearoxy (or Stearyl) Dimethicone
Trimethyl Silylamodimethicone  - special case, a polymer-type silicone that bonds to damaged areas and is not supposed to accumulate on top of itself.
©Science-y Hair Blog 2014
Silicones which evaporate: They are not water soluble, but they're a special case. These ingredients are added to help other ingredients spread evenly and then evaporate - any remaining residue will be removed with shampoo.
Cyclomethiconal (Cyclomethiconel)
©Science-y Hair Blog 2014

Why do cosmetics manufacturers use silicones?  Silicones are emollients and add shine and excellent slip/lubrication (comb-ability, reduced friction and breakage). Their weight and ability to help seal moisture both in the hair shaft and out prevent frizzing in high humidity. Unlike oils, they are not likely to go rancid (oxidize) which means longer shelf life. Silicones are not bad for hair in and of themselves. Silicone ingredients can weigh some hair down. Their lubricating ability can render some wavy and curly hair flat or limp. If you use shampoo, conditioner and leave-in products containing silicone - that can become difficult to remove. Using heavy-handed applications of silicone anti-frizz serum can make your hair a little more water-repellant and slick than nature intended. 

Whereas it takes a lot of other ingredients that provide slip like cationic conditioners (maybe 4-10%) to get the job done, one needs only 1-2% silicones to provide the same benefits. Besides that, water-insoluble silicones have been demonstrated to be washed out by ammonium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate and/or cocamidopropyl betaine shampoos (removing approximately 90% silicone residue). Cationic conditioners by definition accumulate on (bond to) hair and resist rinsing or shampooing hair and this can cause a dull look or matted feeling residue if they are overused. I’m not making that up, it’s actually something that cosmetics formulators try to manage in at least some of their formulations so their products don’t weigh your hair down or leave it feeling coated and matted.

How do water-soluble silicones come into being? Water is polar – it has a positive and negative side to the molecule. Oils (like silicones) are nonpolar. In your first week of high school chemistry you probably learned that “like dissolves like.” Polar water dissolves polar “other things” and non-polar oils dissolve other non-polar things. You know this from observing oil-based salad dressing too. But if we use some cosmetic chemistry voodoo and attach (via esterfication) a polar substance like polyethylene glycol or a protein to a nonpolar silicone – voila, a useful cosmetic ingredient that now has the ability to be carried away by water more easily because one part of it truly is now water-soluble.

What does the “PEG” and the number mean? It’s important! Let’s say you have PEG-12 Dimethicone. That means that 12 molecules of polyethylene glycol were reacted with 1 molecule of dimethicone. The higher the number, the more soluble the oil (and silicone is essentially an oil). That’s because there are more of the water-soluble ingredients -the “PEG,” relative to the water insoluble dimethicone. For example, PEG-8 Dimethicone is slightly less water-soluble than PEG-12 dimethicone, which is slightly less water-soluble than PEG/PPG 15/20 dimethicone.

Are the "water-soluble" silicones really water-soluble? Yes, to a point. But do they rinse off your hair when embedded in a hair product? Try it and see. These silicones don't exist alone - they are accompanied by other ingredients in hair products. Some ingredients in a product are going to stick to your hair no matter what. It may not be the water-soluble silicone that is to blame, but all the ingredients in a formula together. If your hair accumulates build up from everything under the sun, you might notice some limpness if you don't use some sort of cleanser after using a water-soluble silicone-containing product. Here is a handy trick to find out what rinses off easily. Smear some of the product on a smooth, clear glass. Let it dry completely. Then try to rinse it off with water or water and a little gentle rubbing with your finger. Does it rinse off completely and leave no greasy smear? Hair can bond with products more so than can glass, so this is not 100% reliable - just a quick-and-dirty test.

 ©Science-y Hair Blog 2014